Which example below represents relative age dating
Principle of Uniformitarianism The principle of Uniformitarianism was postulated by James Hutton (1726-1797) who examined rocks in Scotland and noted that features like mudcracks, ripple marks, graded bedding, etc.where the same features that could be seen forming in modern environments.By carefully digging, we have found that each trash pit shows a sequence of layers.Although the types of trash in each pit is quite variable, each layer has a distinctive kind of trash that distinguishes it from other layers in the pits.Principle of Inclusions If we find a rock fragment enclosed within another rock, we say the fragment is an inclusion.If the enclosing rock is an igneous rock, the inclusions are called xenoliths.Prior to the late 17th century, geologic time was thought to be the same as historical time.Archbishop James Ussher of Armagh, Ireland, 1654, added up generations from the Old Testament and determined that Earth formed on October 23, 4004 BCE.
We discuss the 7 principles of stratigraphy first and then see how these apply to fossils.
Sediment deposited on steep slopes will be washed away before it is buried and lithified to become sedimentary rock, but sediment deposited in nearly horizontal layers can be buried and lithified.
Thus rocks that we now see inclined or folded have been disturbed since their original deposition.
In the diagram to the right,the fault cuts the limestone and the sandstone, but does not cut the basalt.
Thus we know that the fault is younger than the limestone and shale, but older than the basalt above.